It’s situated between China in the north and India in the south, east and west. The Nepal total areas covered 147,181 sq.km. Nepal has more than 101 ethnic groups and 92 spoken languages and Nepali is the national language; but some people understand and speak English as well.
Nepal, a treasure trove of natural heritage, is a relatively small nation with the total population of 28.8 million where climatic zones vary dramatically within a short distance from the low lying Kanchan kalan (67m) to Mt. Everest (8848m), the highest point on earth.
Nepal has four major seasons (1) winter: December – February (2) Spring: March-May (3) Summer: June-August (4) Autumn: September-November.
FLORA N FAUNA:
Nepal has a high number of fauna species of which higher fauna groups have been relatively well studied compare to the lower fauna groups, except for the butterflies ad to some extent the spiders. There are 651 specifies, which are distributed throughout the country in various ecological zones.
Lying at the ecological crossroads of major floristic regions, Nepal boasts of over 6390 species of flowering plants.
LAKES, WETLANDS AND RIVERS OF NEPAL:
Nepal known as the ‘Water Towers of South Asia’, Nepal’s water bodies include about 200 lakes, 3252 glaciers, 2315 glacial lakes, and over 6000 rivers.
PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL:
With the enactment of the 1973 National Parks and Wildlife Conversation Act, Nepal joined other nations in the cause of biodiversity conservation by establishing 16 Protected Areas that include nine national parks, three wildlife reserves, one hunting reserve, and three conservation areas.
These protected areas are the depositories of diverse flora and fauna found in the country. Each of the protected areas of Nepal has its unique ecological features offering special attractions and potential activities for visitors depending upon location.
HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS:
When traveling in the high altitude regions, visitors need to be careful about high altitude sickness. As the atmospheric pressure decreases, the amount of oxygen in the air also decreases exponentially as altitude is gained. At an altitude of 5500m, the atmospheric pressure will be approximately half that at sea level and 70% at 3000m. High altitude sickness can affect a person if elevation is gained too rapidly and without proper acclimatization, especially above 3000m. The symptoms are – headache, difficulty sleeping, breathlessness, loss of appetite and general fatigue.
If anyone develops the above symptoms, he/she must immediately stop ascending; and if the symptoms persist, the only proven cure is to descend to lower elevations. Generally, the risk can be minimized by gaining not more than 300m per day.